Upper Airway
Surgical procedure performed under general anesthesia to physically tie the most frequently paralyzed left arytenoid cartilage up and out of the airway lumen using 1 or 2 sutures. This optimizes air flow through the larynx during exercise.
Tie Forward
A surgical technique used to aid preventing dorsal displacement of the soft palate in horses in which the problem causes loss of exercise tolerance. Performed under general anesthesia, permanent sutures are placed around the larynx and hyoid apparatus to hold the epiglottis closer to the back edge of the soft palate.
Epiglottic Entrapment
A cause of respiratory noise and exercise intolerance in which a fold of tissue (aryepiglottic fold) envelopes the epiglottis. This typically requires surgical transection of the fold of tissue with endoscopically guided laser transection or via sharp excision. This may be performed under standing sedation or general anesthesia.
A surgical procedure performed to treat inward collapse of the vocal cords. It removes the mucosal lining of the ventricle(an outpouching of the larynx) and the vocal cord to create a smooth laryngeal contour to reduce respiratory noise. This may be performed under standing sedation, general anesthesia or using an endoscopic laser assisted technique.
Ethmoid Hematoma
A progressive mass that grows off of the ethmoid turbinates of the nasal passage or from the sinus floor causing intermittent nasal bleeding and eventually enlarging enough to cause obstruction in air flow. These are typically resolved with surgical excision using laser therapy, scalpel excision or intratumoral serial formaldehyde injections.
Sinusitis/Dental Disease
Primary sinusitis is an inflammatory reaction of the sinus lining to bacterial or fungal infections. It is typically treated with sinus lavage and systemic antibiotics or anti-fungals.
Sinusitis Secondary to Dental Disease
Typically secondary to a tooth root infection contaminating the sinus, or a fractured tooth allowing direct communication with the mouth and subsequent contamination.
Guttural Pouch Mycosis
Typically a fungal infection most commonly caused by Aspergillus spp in which plaques of the fungus grow along one of the arterial walls in the guttural pouch(internal carotid artery or branches of the external carotid artery may be involved). Frequently this infection requires balloon or coil embolization of the affected artery to prevent the risk of severe hemorrhage and possible death while the fungal infection is treated.