Reproduction
 
  • Dystocia
Refers to difficulty in giving birth, or inability to give birth. This is estimated to occur in 1-2% of the foal population. The problem may arise from malposition of the fetus, an oversized fetus, fetal death in utero or when the mare cannot initiate normal contractures to expel the fetus.
  • Caesarian section
Performed under general anesthesia. Surgical delivery of a foal through an abdominal incision either electively or as an emergency procedure during a dystocia.
Foaling damage repair
  • Cervical laceration/tear
A laceration of the cervix of the mare during foaling that causes loss of normal architecture of separation between the uterine environment and the vaginal vault and potential inability to become pregnant.
  • Rectovaginal fistula
An injury sustained during foaling in which the hoof of the foal penetrates the roof of the vagina and the wall of the rectum creating a direct communication between the 2 structures and subsequent contamination of the vagina with manure.
  • Perineal laceration
An injury sustained during foaling in which the vulvar tissue and Anus are torn or lacerated as the foal is expelled, once again causing direct communication between the rectum and vagina.
  • Ovariectomy
Surgical removal of a mare's ovaries or ovary as in the case of a granulosa cell tumor or for managing behavioral issues in performance horses. This procedure may be performed standing under laparosocopic guidance or under general anesthesia through a routine abdominal incision.